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New Contributor II

NAT overload

Hi all,

let me know one single public IP how many internal IP can handle.



In theory, 1 public IP can be used to for 65535 connections. Because it is limited with number of ports.

New Contributor

Just to add to this, you will get to the point where you will get a "NAT port exhaustion" message on the firewall due to the amount of connections if you exceed that amount. You will then have to create a NAT pool of IPs and change your policies accordingly to that new NAT pool.

Valued Contributor

If, by any chance, you come from the Palo Alto background, where there exists Dynamic Ports Hide NAT oversubscription, then there is no such tricks employed in Fortigate world. 

I was sure oversubscription is not used in Fortigates, but seems it actually is  - 


"This is because the tuple (NAT_srcip, NAT_srcport, destip, destport) is different, the destip changes, so the srcport randomly chosen can be the same, it will not generate a session clash message.

The fact that a tuple difference allows to reuse the same NAT src port, permits the firewall to have more than 65K sessions with only one public IP used for SNAT."

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All opinions are mine only.