This article describes techniques on how to identify, debug and troubleshoot IPsec VPN tunnels.
As the first action, isolate the problematic tunnel.
Enter the VDOM (if applicable) where the VPN is configured and type the command:
# get vpn ipsec tunnel summary
'to10.174.0.182' 10.174.0.182:0 selectors(total,up): 1/1 rx(pkt,err): 1921/0 tx(pkt,err): 69/2
'to10.189.0.182' 10.189.0.182:0 selectors(total,up): 1/0 rx(pkt,err): 0/0 tx(pkt,err): 0/0
On the particular output, two VPN tunnels, to10.174.0.182 & to10.189.0.182 are visible. The second VPN tunnel on the list has its selectors in a down state so the focus will be on that tunnel.
2) Phase 1 checks.
After the problematic tunnel has been identified, it will be possible to understand the status of phase 1. To do so, type the below command:
#diagnose vpn ike gateway list name to10.189.0.182
interface: port9 10
addr: 10.189.0.31:500 -> 10.189.0.182:500
created: 15s ago
IKE SA: created 1/1
IPsec SA: created 0/0
id/spi: 19576 a83334b3c66f871b/0000000000000000
status: connecting, state 3, started 15s ago
The important field from this particular command is status. The status field has a discrete output which can be either connecting or established.
1) Established means Phase 1 is up and running.
2) Connecting means Phase 1 is down.
If Phase 1 is down, do additional checks to identify the reason.
- Ensure bidirectional connectivity exists between the VPN gateways.
Try to traceroute towards the VPN peer, in our example, use commands:
#execute traceroute-options source 10.189.0.31
#execute traceroute 10.189.0.182
-Confirm IKE traffic for port 500 or 4500 is not blocked somewhere along the path.
To do so, perform a packet sniffer:
# diagnose sniffer packet any 'host 10.189.0.182 and port 500' 4 0 l
filters=[host 10.189.0.182 and port 500]
- IKE debugging: If both of the above checks are successful, start debugging IKE protocol to check for possible configuration mismatches between the peers:
# diagnose vpn ike log-filter dst-addr4 10.189.0.182
# diagnose debug application ike -1
# diagnose debug enable
3) Phase 2 checks: If the status of Phase 1 is in an established state, then focus on Phase 2. To do so, issue the command:
# diagnose vpn tunnel list name 10.189.0.182
list all ipsec tunnel in vd 0
name=to10.189.0.182 ver=1 serial=2 10.189.0.31:0->10.189.0.182:0
bound_if=10 lgwy=static/1 tun=intf/0 mode=auto/1 encap=none/8 options=npu
proxyid_num=1 child_num=0 refcnt=10 ilast=25 olast=25 ad=/0
stat: rxp=0 txp=0 rxb=0 txb=0
dpd: mode=on-demand on=0 idle=20000ms retry=3 count=0 seqno=534
natt: mode=none draft=0 interval=0 remote_port=0
proxyid=to10.189.0.182 proto=0 sa=0 ref=1 serial=4
The important field from the particular output is the ‘sa’. SA can have three values:
a) sa=0 indicates there is a mismatch between selectors or no traffic is being initiated.
b) sa=1 indicates IPsec SA is matching and there is traffic between the selectors.
c) sa=2 is only visible during IPsec SA rekey.
Lastly, there might be cases where the encryption and hashing algorithms in Phase 2 are mismatching as well.
In order to identify this kind of error, run IKE debugging as it was described above.